When the St. Louis World Fair opened in 1904, the Philippine-American war was still raging. Although Pedro Paterno and other members of the Aguinaldo cabinet had already switched allegiance even before President Emilio Aguinaldo was captured in Isabela, a number of Filipino generals and their troops continued to valiantly resist American ‘s superior forces with guerrilla warfare. . In that context, there could have been no better device than the St. Louis World Fair to show the American people, and the international community, that the
In his revealing book --1904 World’s Fair, The Filipino Experience ( UP Press, 2004)-- Jose D. Fermin wrote there were vehement objections to the portrayal of Filipinos as savages fearing it would hurt our chances of regaining absolute Independence. The invasion and our clamor for
Unwittingly perhaps, the ilustrados were also on display. Members of the Philippine Honorary Commission were sent to the
Many provincial governors were invited: Tomas del Rosario, Bataan; Joaquin Ortega, La Union; Pablo Tecson, Bulacan, Juan Cailles, Laguna; Bernardino Monreal, Ssorsogon; Juan Pimentel, Camarines Sur and Norte; Alfonso Ramos, Tarlac; Epifanio de los Santos, Nueva Ecija; Manuel Corrales, Misamis; Juan Climaco, Cebu; Simeon Cruz, Batangas; Arturo Dancel, Rizal; Mana Crisologo, Pangasinan;
There were three media men: Jose de Loyzaga of “El Comerico”; Leoncio Gonzalez Liquet of “La Democracia” and Fernando Ma. Guerrero of “El Renacimiento” which shortly after was ordered closed by Dean Worcester for a defamatory editorial “Aves de Rapina” (Birds of Prey). .Fernando’s cousin, botanist Leon Ma. Guerrero, was the secretary of the Philippine Exposition Board, while Pedro Paterno was a board member. .
Because the St Louis Fair’s avowed objective was to foment trade and commerce, business people were included in the delegation like Ariston Bautista, whose Quiapo house still stands on a street with his name; coffee magnate Ramon Genato and Francisco Reyes, president of the Filipino Chamber of Commerce
The ilustrado lifestyle, was depicted in the elegant “
Evidently, it was the lure of the wild and savage that was unforgettable; the ilustrados on display left no imprint on the collective memory of the twenty million who went to that world fair. If they had, at least, made a dent, Americans would not be asking us if we still live in tree houses.#